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  • Whitley Vistisen posted an update 4 months, 1 week ago

    Two measures will be taken by our labs in an attempt to spread FSM as a routine mode of light microscopy.First, protocols are under development to generate cell lines that permanently express low levels of Citrulline uorescent cytoskeleton proteins optimized for speckle image formation.This will avoid the timeconsuming steps of microinjection and the tweaking of transient expression of uorescent protein and will turn FSM into a robust technique with high quantitative reproducibility.Second, the qFSM software package will be released.The use of cell lines with reproducible levels of uorescent protein will greatly aid the software distribution.Under standardized conditions many of the processing steps can be furnished with default control parameters so that meaningful results can be obtained without indepth knowledge of the mathematical algorithms.Last, the idea of FSM will be promoted by more applications outside the cytoskeleton eld.The analyses of FA dynamics make an initial step in this direction.Sheetz, Julia E. Sable, and HansGnther DbereinerpCryoElectron Microscopy of Spliceosomal Components Holger Stark and Reinhard LhrmannpMechanotransduction Involving Multimodular Proteins: Converting Force into Biochemical Signals Viola Vogelppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp INDEX Subject Indexppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Cumulative Index of Contributing Authors, Volumes ppppppppppppppppppppppppppp Cumulative Index of Chapter Titles, Volumes pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ERRATA An online log of corrections to Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure chapters may be found at http:biophys.annualreviews.orgerrata.shtml vi Contents View publication stats View publication stats All rights reserved X.Such interactions are critical for a host of cellular processes.Here we focus on the many types of interactions that exist between the cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane to illustrate why these cellular components can never truly be studied in isolation in vivo.We discuss how membranecytoskeleton interactions are mediated and modulated, and how many proteins involved in these interactions are disrupted in human disease.We then highlight key molecular and physical variables that must be considered in order to mechanistically dissect events associated with changes in plasma membrane morphology.These considerations are integrated into the context of cell migration, lopodia formation, and clathrinmediated endocytosis to show how a holistic view of the plasma membranecytoskeleton interface can allow for the appropriate interpretation of experimental ndings and provide novel mechanistic insight into these important cellular events.A great deal of work has examined this interface to attempt to understand, at a mechanistic level, how processes that require maintenance of, or changes in, plasma membrane morphology are mediated.These studies have discovered that cytoskeletal elements interact intimately and bidirectionally with the plasma membrane and that neither can therefore truly be studied in isolation in vivo.Here we focus predominantly on the mechanisms by which plasma membrane shape changes can occur and be maintained through the regulation of membranecytoskeleton interactions.We then consider at the mechanistic level how an appreciation of these interactions can be integrated with biochemical and cell biological ndings in events where plasma membrane deformation occur, with emphasis on clathrinmediated endocytosis.This review is intended to emphasize something of the complexity of the network of interactions that cell biologists study, to illustrate the importance of studying the membrane and the cytoskeleton together as part of a single system to decode mechanistic information, and to provide a framework within which certain experiments can be appropriately interpreted and approached.